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poyoa epea pac oooc opeecoo opa. pee ceo, ae cee poyoo epea poc ce oapx apo, peaaex pa a pe, a ae oeaype ycaex oapo oo po o pepe ao-o opac. e oee co oapx apo peaaec opee paax ooo poyooo acca e oee co oapo ycaec po ao opac, e e cee poyoo epea peeo aoy- o poyooy accy. Cee poyoo epea oe epea a ocoe epepeco acoc cpoca. epepeca aoc oaae pea cpoca a a poy p ee e pyoo poya pyo oapo ap. e e epepeca acoc, e oee cycya c aax opeee pae oape ap e e cee poyoo epea. aoopo, cee poyoo epea ye e e, e e aee epepeco acoc cpoca. Ee o oaaee cee poyoo epea cy ec po. E = Z , i = 1, ., , e qi co aao, oopx opee oyae i- oap; co oyaex oapo. Ec E = 1, opee oya ce poy oo o e aae. poe epea ec aca. p E = 0 opee pacpee co oy paoepo ey ce aaa. poe epea ec a. , Ha pax c epepoa poyo pa oaae opeeeo cee oooo ac, ooy ee yaa pa cpoca ye e opae ao. Bea aoa yao po cpoca - eoa a-coc cpoca oeo p - ac o cee poo ac, oopo oaae pa. Ha o ocpoe o eco, oeax cee oooo ac p a pe oooceco oype, - ec Poa. ec Poa cpoc a ocoe coocae aeco yo aoa po pooo cpoca aoo poyooo acca po yaoo cpoca p, ycae ay-o oapy apy oo acca: R = ga/ gb, e R ec Poa; ga aec ya aoa po yaoo cpoca; gb aec ya aoa po cooyo cpoca. Ec pa e oaae poo ac, o ee ya cpoc e oaec o cooyoo pooo cpoca, oa ec Poa pae 1. e oe poa ac p, e oe paa aeco, e oe ya- cpoc ooec o pooo, a a a ya cpoc cea oee ace, o ce eca paec y, , ceoaeo, aee eca ae ye pac y. C pyo copo, ec apep xoa opac ocycy, o oocpoo epoe ooeca p p, ecyx a pe oooceco oype, a oaa .eep, ye paa y.

ooy paoece oe 'Acpeoa aea - cce oaae acay yaeoc poao py o pya - acay cee poyoo epea. a opao, poca, cxoa oe opoao epea oapa ae coeo poa acoe paoece eo opoe. Ec p coo ope oo ooo apaepa coeo oee o ecoooe, o e, o oyae ypaa paoec peya: poa o pacoaac e py pyy (aa cee poyoo epea), o aaa oaoe e c yeo pacopx epe. Ec e p oy appoa ecoooee e, paoecoe cocoe oaae acay yaeoc poao py o pya, oopa ec cece cpaeecoo ea - ea, aaaea oo po, oaae e a cpoc pyo p. . . , . . , : dC(U)/dU >> 0, C(U) ; U ; d , . , , , , , . , . , , , . . . ( ) . , , . , , , . , . , . . - , . o cx op paccapa poyoy epea c o pe opee - co oapx apo, oope ec a pe ocy oyae. eep cae opoc, oo yca ooe co oapx aeoa cao pe.

Ec x > y, o opee ye peoa py . Ec x < y, o opee ye peoa py A. opee cea ye pa y py, oxo o oopo ye copooac oee pacop epa. peoo, o e a oap oao y oox p. oa p yco o pa ye pacooea a pacco o ooo oa y e oe cpo e coe ecopacooee, pa A epe aoe ecopacooee, p oopo ee p ye acao. oo pa A oa ae ooo oeo ca . pa A ye pacooea eee p , a pacco a1 o pyoo oa y. Bce opee, ye a o oe y, yy oya oap y p A, a x oco. B co oepe pa , ocoy oa ye ec oep o pacooe p A, epeecc cey epo eoo eee p A, a o epexa opeee, yx a o oe y. o poecc ye pooac o ex op, oa oe p e oayc epe y: oa y x ye oaooe co oyaee, poo ooa o oeo x oeca. aoe paoece ye ca paoece, ocoy p ao pacooe y oo p e ye cyo epeac ay-o copoy, e coe pacooee - apaep coe eeoc. . 1. x y a1 a, p eoooc ee ypo e, ecopacooee yx p ye cy cpaeeco epeeo ooao opeec epo oac ocya. a, cceoa oape p pyx opoo, aeae, o aoa ooc aao eceo pxoc a ep opoo. a opao, p cpoao ee ecopacooee poao ooo oo e oapa oaaec cpoo eeppoa. o pocpaceoe paoece ec paoece o Hy: a oo p opee coe paoecoe ecopacooee, y oo p e cyo e eo, ocoy o e pee pocy ca oyaee. Booa pya eppea ao oe. Ec ecopacooee p cpoao (apep, p ex a opeeeoe cooae eex yaco eoc), cpoo eeppoa oaec ypoe e. ao cyae ae eooe paoece oaec paoece o Hy: aa pa ye aaa ey, pay ee oypea c opao a ey pacopx pacxoo. caoee pox e p cpoao ecoooe p opeeec eo pacopx pacxoo. Ec p pacooe a pao pacco o opee, aa pa oe aa oee coy ey a co oap, e e eee aoe-o co opeee ye eo oya, e opee, oope peoy yoco pacooe- pacop epa o ee. ooy yoo pacooea pa oaae opeeeo poo ac, o ooe e aaa y oee coe e. Oao e ae pacooe opee o oo p e e pyo pe, e caee oaaec ooooe oece epo p a cpoc, e cee ye poc cee eoo oype ey .

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